Kerle, I.A., Jägerhuber, L., Secci, R., Pfarr, N., Blüm, P., Roesch, R., Götze, K.S., Weichert, W., Bassermann, F., Ruland, J., Winter, C. (2022). Cancers 14.
Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are the most common neoplasia of the lymphatic system. Circulating cell-free DNA released from tumor cells (ctDNA) has been studied in many tumor entities and successfully used to monitor treatment and follow up. Studies of ctDNA in DLBCL so far have mainly focused on tracking mutations in peripheral blood initially detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor tissue from one lymphoma manifestation site. This approach, however, cannot capture the mutational heterogeneity of different tumor sites in its entirety. In this case report, we present repetitive targeted next-generation sequencing combined with digital PCR out of peripheral blood of a patient with DLBCL relapse. By combining both detection methods, we were able to detect a new dominant clone of ctDNA correlating with the development of secondary therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) during the course of observation. Conclusively, our case report reinforces the diagnostic importance of ctDNA in DLBCL as well as the importance of repeated ctDNA sequencing combined with focused digital PCR assays to display the dynamic mutational landscape during the clinical course.